Every home network has a router, the device that connects all of your devices to the internet. Routers are computers with specialized hardware and software that provides security and routing functions for connecting networks on its local area network. It can also be used as a DHCP server or DNS server by assigning IP addresses automatically to individual hosts in an assigned subnet range within one class C, A or B address space (e.
g., 192.168.1.).

A home network, or a private local area network is made up of a router, ethernet cables and wifi. The router connects to the internet and provides an internet connection for all devices on the network. Each device then has an ethernet cable connecting it to the router. The wifi device will connect to the router via wireless connection.

How a home network works: router, ethernet, wifi

A general explanation of how a home network, which uses modems, routers, switches, ethernet cables, and wifi to connect our PCs to the internet, works.

How-a-home-network-works-router-ethernet-wifi When we discuss the home network, we must take into account all of the gadgets that enable PCs and other devices (smartphones, tablets, and smart TVs) to connect to the Internet. As a result, we’re talking about routers first and foremost, but also switches, wifi, and cables, which may or may not be present in the home depending on the requirements.

Network technology is a difficult topic, but with a basic understanding of terms and definitions, it should be simpler to do appropriate research and determine what to do in the event of a problem. Let’s have a look at the key components of a LAN-type home network, as well as their distribution and when they might be beneficial in certain settings.

READ ALSO -> Solve connection problems between PC and file sharing in the LAN

Setup is simpler.

A basic and traditional network configuration is as follows: a computer linked directly to a modem through a cable, which is then connected to the telephone company’s Internet connection via the twisted pair. Given that there are many other devices that need Internet access, and we cannot deliver Internet exclusively to the PC, this form of connection has gone out of favor (as it was done before 2000).

As a result, at least one wireless router must be included in the scheme in order to link wireless PCs, as well as smartphones, tablets, Smart TVs, and home automation devices. You should always use a router today, given the cheap cost (see which current router to purchase) and the advantages it provides.

It is no longer required to purchase a large number of devices to set up a modest home network: all modems offered by the service providers also function as routers and can be used to link several devices through Wi-Fi or cable.

What is a router or modem/router and how does it work?

The following tasks are performed by a router or a more contemporary modem / router (as indicated in the router operating guide):

  • IP and NAT sharing: All computers connected to the internet over the same line share an IP assigned by the network provider. A router manages many connections and ensures that the correct data packets are sent to the appropriate device. NAT acts as a receiving point for packets travelling over the network, allowing the router to determine where each incoming and outgoing packet should be sent.
  • Dynamic Host Configuration: You would have to manually setup all network hosts by giving them an IP address if you didn’t utilize DHCP. When a particular device is connected, DHCP automatically assigns an IP address without the need for any intervention.
  • Routers also serve as firewalls, preventing external intrusions into the inside network. They automatically reject incoming data that isn’t part of the ongoing communication between a machine on your network and the rest of the world. For individuals who just have one PC at home, firewall capability is also critical.

When utilizing a router at home, these are the crucial characteristics to consider.

The operation of a switch

Routers double as network switches, allowing data to flow between home PCs linked to the internal network through the LAN ports on the rear. Most routers include four Ethernet ports, which are more than adequate for most home users to connect four devices via cable.

If we wish to connect more than four computers to the router or modem / router via cable, we’ll need to add a new switch di rete to the equipment we currently have. By connecting devices through Ethernet network connection, switches are a great and economical method to expand the size of your home network.

The greatest network switches for the home environment may be found on Amazon for a reasonable price.

What is an Ethernet Network Cable and How Does It Work?

When it comes to network connections, the best way to get the fastest speed is to utilize an Ethernet cable. Ethernet connections have a speed of 1000 Mbit / s, and 2.5, 5 and 10 Gbps cables have recently been introduced to the market, which are not particularly beneficial in the house but should be considered in the corporate setting.

All devices in the transfer chain must have the same Ethernet speed to take full benefit of their maximum capabilities (thus exploiting the same protocol). For example, if we have a computer with a Gigabit Ethernet port (1000 Mbps) but a modem with four 10/100 Ethernet ports (maximum speed 100 Mbps), the computer will connect without a hitch but will not be able to achieve a speed greater than 100 Mbps. The converse is also true: if we have a fast 2.5 Gbps modem but all of the computers we connect to have 1000 Mbps (Gigabit) Ethernet connections, the highest speed we can utilize is 1 Gbps.

For further information, see our guide to the distinctions between Ethernet cables, including CAT5, CAT6, CAT7, and CAT8, as well as which ones to use.

What is the Wi-Fi network and how does it work?

Almost all current gadgets connect to the modem or router through a Wi-Fi network, which transmits data wirelessly via radio waves. Wi-Fi speeds are instead represented by versions of the IEEE 802.11 network standard, but to make things simpler, they also developed a simple and obvious name to grasp what network we are using and what speed we may attain.

Today, we may use the following network protocols:

  • 802.11g (or Wi-Fi 3) is a relatively ancient standard with a maximum transmission rate of 54 Mbps (realistically 22 Mbps). 802.11g operates at 2.4 GHz frequencies, however just a few devices now support it (prior to 2010).
  • 802.11n (or Wi-Fi 4) is a widely used protocol in home automation and on older devices that are still functional. Wi-Fi 4 has a maximum throughput of 300 Mbps and can operate on both the 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz bands (realistically 150 Mbps).
  • 802.11ac (or Wi-Fi 5): this protocol is becoming more popular as a result of the 866 Mbps transmission speed it provides for devices (realistically about 500 Mbps). This protocol operates solely at 5 GHz, is less susceptible to interference, and has a shorter range (no more than two rooms).
  • With a peak speed of 9.6 Gbps, 802.11ax (or Wi-Fi 6) is the newest technology, running on both 2.4 and 5 GHz and capable of surpassing the speed of the Gigabit Ethernet standard. To utilize this protocol, you’ll need a new modem or router, as well as devices that support Wi-Fi 6.

If we’re having difficulties reaching the whole house with a single modem or router, we may boost internet coverage by reading our tips on how to amplify home Wi-Fi and extend wireless reception and what are the finest 5 GHz WiFi repeaters.

Another issue with Wi-Fi is radiation, despite the fact that, as we previously said in another article, Wi-Fi waves are not harmful to us or our children.


We may have a full understanding of our home network and the devices we use by studying these basic phrases, even if we don’t understand how they operate. Finding out exactly how we connect to the Internet is critical to determining whether we are taking advantage of our operator’s maximum speed: to always have the maximum speed, we must use Ethernet (where possible) or Wi-Fi 5/Wi-Fi 6, which are the only ways to make the most of the telephone line or optical fiber.

If you have optical fiber, we recommend that you read our tutorials on how to connect any modem to FTTH fiber and which router is ideal for fiber.

The “best home network setup 2021” is a guide that will teach you how to set up your home network. It will also give you tips on how to make sure that your wireless signal is strong and stable.

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